Abstract of the referenced paper at https://www.mdpi.com/2072-666X/11/1/6 :
--RikAdditive Manufacturing of Sub-Micron to Sub-mm Metal Structures with Hollow AFM Cantilevers
We describe our force-controlled 3D printing method for layer‐by‐layer additive micromanufacturing (µAM) of metal microstructures. Hollow atomic force microscopy cantilevers are utilized to locally dispense metal ions in a standard 3-electrode electrochemical cell, enabling a confined electroplating reaction. The deflection feedback signal enables the live monitoring of the voxel growth and the consequent automation of the printing protocol in a layer‐by‐layer fashion for the fabrication of arbitrary‐shaped geometries. In a second step, we investigated the effect of the free parameters (aperture diameter, applied pressure, and applied plating potential) on the voxel size, which enabled us to tune the voxel dimensions on-the-fly, as well as to produce objects spanning at least two orders of magnitude in each direction. As a concrete example, we printed two different replicas of Michelangelo’s David. Copper was used as metal, but the process can in principle be extended to all metals that are macroscopically electroplated in a standard way.