www.photomacrography.net :: View topic - Balloons in pits, brown marmorated stink bug
www.photomacrography.net Forum Index
An online community dedicated to the practices of photomacrography, close-up and macro photography, and photomicrography.
Photomacrography Front Page Amateurmicrography Front Page
Old Forums/Galleries
 
 FAQFAQ   SearchSearch   MemberlistMemberlist   UsergroupsUsergroups   RegisterRegister 
 ProfileProfile   Log in to check your private messagesLog in to check your private messages   Log inLog in 
Balloons in pits, brown marmorated stink bug
Goto page 1, 2  Next
 
Post new topic   Reply to topic    www.photomacrography.net Forum Index -> Technical and Studio Photography -- Macro and Close-up
View previous topic :: View next topic  
Author Message
rjlittlefield
Site Admin


Joined: 01 Aug 2006
Posts: 20085
Location: Richland, Washington State, USA

PostPosted: Tue Oct 08, 2019 6:11 pm    Post subject: Balloons in pits, brown marmorated stink bug Reply with quote

For a long time, I've wondered what certain parts of a brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) would look like if we got really close.

Here's a partial answer (stereo pair, crossed-eye). This was shot with a 50X objective on Canon T1i and cropped to a subject area about 0.17 mm wide by 0.30 mm high, so it displays about 700X on a typical monitor:



Backing way out, here's a view with 5X, uncropped so about 4.2 mm by 3.9 mm.



Intermediate, 20X. The stereo pair is of the area near the right side, just below center.



However, the images above can only be part of the story.

I guessed that someplace on the Internet there might be SEM photos of these things, so I did some searching.

Sure enough, I found these:
Looking at the last couple of links, it seems that on the specimen imaged in the SEM, the things in pits look like inflated hot air balloons, while in mine they look more like the balloons are mostly deflated except for rigid ribs. A couple of mine, not included in the stereo pair, even look like they've burst so all that's left is the rigid ribs plus a membrane connecting them.

If anybody knows the function of these things, I would be fascinated to hear!

--Rik

Technical info: all images with Mitutoyo M Plan Apo objectives on Raynox DCR-150 tube lens, flash illumination diffused through Kleenex tissue, processed with Zerene Stacker PMax. The stereo pair is synthetic, +-5% = +-6.8 degrees, 121 images at 0.001 mm focus step.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
Olympusman



Joined: 15 Jan 2012
Posts: 4254

PostPosted: Tue Oct 08, 2019 6:42 pm    Post subject: Stink bug pits Reply with quote

That first stereo pair is remarkable. I have often thought those pits are what puts the stink in Stink Bug. By the way, it's getting cold here and they are finding their ways into the house, though not as bad as a few years ago.

Mike
_________________
Michael Reese Much FRMS EMS Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
rjlittlefield
Site Admin


Joined: 01 Aug 2006
Posts: 20085
Location: Richland, Washington State, USA

PostPosted: Tue Oct 08, 2019 10:06 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks!

My understanding is that the "stink" part is provided by glands on the underside, between the legs.

https://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/24813/PDF writes (regarding a different species) that
Quote:
Adult Cosmopepla bimaculata discharge a volatile secretion from paired ventral metathoric glands (MTG) when disturbed.
...
Insects can selectively discharge from either the right or left gland or both glands simultaneously, can control the amount of fluid ejected, and can resorb the ejected secretion droplet back into the gland reservoir.

My personal guess is that the "balloons in pits" are some sort of sensory organ. But what kind, I have no idea. Any information will be appreciated!

--Rik
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
Pau
Site Admin


Joined: 20 Jan 2010
Posts: 4841
Location: Valencia, Spain

PostPosted: Wed Oct 09, 2019 12:50 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:
Looking at the last couple of links, it seems that on the specimen imaged in the SEM, the things in pits look like inflated hot air balloons, while in mine they look more like the balloons are mostly deflated except for rigid ribs


Very likely the shape when alive is like ballons and this shape is better preserved by their cryo preparation technique than with your air dried specimen, could I be right?
Can you study an alive or just died specimen?
_________________
Pau
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
rjlittlefield
Site Admin


Joined: 01 Aug 2006
Posts: 20085
Location: Richland, Washington State, USA

PostPosted: Wed Oct 09, 2019 8:00 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Pau wrote:
Very likely the shape when alive is like ballons and this shape is better preserved by their cryo preparation technique than with your air dried specimen, could I be right?
Can you study an alive or just died specimen?

Yes, I expect you're right. I look forward to imaging a fresh specimen, but I have no idea when that will be possible because these bugs are still rare where I live.

I was surprised, to say the least, to see the structure of these things. The usual low-mag images, including direct view through my dissecting scope, show only some little white thing at the center of each pit. I was expecting to find something like a short clear cone or bristle. Such a delicate membranous structure as these balloons never occurred to me!

--Rik
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
nanometer



Joined: 30 Apr 2016
Posts: 288
Location: Tucson, AZ

PostPosted: Thu Oct 10, 2019 9:29 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

That stereo is awesome!
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Chris S.
Site Admin


Joined: 05 Apr 2009
Posts: 3324
Location: Ohio, USA

PostPosted: Thu Oct 10, 2019 11:31 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I'm delighted by this thread. Some years back, I shot a 5x stack of a dried-up brown marmorated stinkbug, and saw vase-shaped structures in the pits. As these structures were very small in the 5x image, detail on them was limited, and I wondered if they were really there, or perhaps just some artifact created by my workflow. (For context, I've seen shiny bits of narrowly-lit subjects "bloom" outward when using the DMap stacking method.) I intended to return to this species at higher magnification and more diffuse light for a better look, but had not yet done so.

So bravo, Rik for your wonderful stereo pair displaying these structures in eye-popping detail! So these "vases" truly exist, and are far more interesting than I'd have guessed. The SEM images Rik linked to extend the story markedly.

Brown marmorated stinkbugs are once again invading my home, as they have during the past few autumns. We find them very annoying--they come down our chimneys (which we can't legally block) so we keep a dedicated vacuum cleaner for catching them, and hunt them aggressively throughout the house several times each day. They land on our windows, walls, and counters, in our food and drinks, on our bodies and in our hair--and when disturbed (often, when in human habitation), they emit foul smells. But as Mike also observed, these stinkbugs so far don't seem as prolific as in prior years. One can only hope that some disease or predator has caught up with this invasive species.

I'd also have bet that these intrapit structures were outlets for stink compounds, but Rik's link compellingly suggests otherwise (though as noted, in a different species).

Just now, one of these bugs landed near me, and I quickly dissected the front and rear portions, leaving the legs and everything attached to them with the middle portion. Subjectively, I could smell stinkbug in the legless front and rear portions, but the smell in the central, leg-including portion seemed stronger (though this portion also contained considerably more body mass and surface area). I have no particular takeaway from this quick test, with obvious faults. Can anyone suggest testing improvements? Numerous specimens are likely to be sacrificed in my household over the next few months. Normally we flush them down the toilet, but I'd be delighted to do something more informative with them if it produced knowledge.

An aside, for anyone interested: Occasionally, while sitting at my desk, I've smelled stinkbug stench occurring in waves: Overpowering then absent; overpowering again and then absent again, this pattern repeating for some time. Eventually I found the cause: Outside my open windows, a stinkbug had been caught in a spider's web. When the spider advanced to evenomate the stinkbug, a cloud of stinkbug smell emerged; when the spider backed off to await the effect of its venom, the stinkbug smell dissipated. So the stinkbug apparently reacted to the spider's attack by emitting stink, then ceased to emit stink whenever the spider backed off. In each case, the waves of stink continued until the stinkbug succumbed to the spider, then ceased.

--Chris S.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Send e-mail
NikonUser



Joined: 04 Sep 2008
Posts: 2575
Location: southern New Brunswick, Canada

PostPosted: Fri Oct 11, 2019 8:01 am    Post subject: insect 'stinks' Reply with quote

Perhaps the standard text on insect defensive secretiions is:

https://www.amazon.ca/Love-Insects-Thomas-Eisner/dp/0674018273

he does discuss stink bugs, no time now to read through it!
_________________
NU.
student of entomology
Quote – Holmes on ‘Entomology’
” I suppose you are an entomologist ? “
” Not quite so ambitious as that, sir. I should like to put my eyes on the individual entitled to that name.
No man can be truly called an entomologist,
sir; the subject is too vast for any single human intelligence to grasp.”
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr
The Poet at the Breakfast Table.

Nikon camera, lenses and objectives
Olympus microscope and objectives
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
Rikisub



Joined: 29 Jan 2013
Posts: 103
Location: Spain

PostPosted: Sat Oct 12, 2019 3:27 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Amazing shots and very interesting subject!!
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Send e-mail Visit poster's website
MarkSturtevant



Joined: 21 Nov 2015
Posts: 579
Location: Michigan, U.S.A.

PostPosted: Sat Oct 12, 2019 5:33 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Beautiful pictures. The structures look to be what are called campaniform sensilla. I did not know they would shrink with air drying. Campaniform sensilla are mechanoreceptors, and here is some information about them: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campaniform_sensilla They are clearly very numerous on this insect for some reason, but that is good since then they will know when someone is squishing these invasive insects Smile

To photograph them in their natural state, you can firmly hold down a live stink bug. It does not have to be this species, since I expect other species would also have these sensilla.
_________________
Mark Sturtevant
Dept. of Still Waters
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
rjlittlefield
Site Admin


Joined: 01 Aug 2006
Posts: 20085
Location: Richland, Washington State, USA

PostPosted: Sat Oct 12, 2019 8:05 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Mark, thanks for the information.

The article in Wikipedia describes campaniform sensilla as being embedded in the cuticle so as to respond to deformation. The ones they show have a wide base and a shallow dome, in contrast to these balloons which have a narrow base and a huge flexible dome.

So I have to wonder, are they really the same?

Or are these bags maybe more like air movement detectors, serving the same function as hairs but without sticking up to get caught on anything?

In quick search, I ran into https://www.researchgate.net/figure/FIG-URE-5-Distribution-pattern-and-structural-features-of-dorsal-campaniform-sensilla-in_fig2_322361289 which writes that "The lateral aspects of larval cephalic cuticle of oak tasar moth, Antheraea proylei, a hybrid between Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea roylei exhibited the presence of gravity receptors in the form of dorsal campaniform sensilla."

Google search on Halyomorpha campaniform produced notably few hits at all. Sad

--Rik
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
Sumguy01



Joined: 28 Jan 2013
Posts: 1378
Location: Ketchikan Alaska USA

PostPosted: Sun Oct 13, 2019 8:05 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Very nice.
Thanks for sharing.
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
svalley



Joined: 03 Dec 2006
Posts: 308
Location: Albany, Oregon

PostPosted: Sun Oct 13, 2019 2:09 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

An excellent set of images Rik!

When I was working at the Oregon Dept of Agriculture I performed the imaging for a research project looking at egg parsitoid wasps in the genus Trissolcus. Trissolcus japonicus ultimately looked like the best bio-control candidate for brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys.

Interestingly, Trissolcus japonicus was discovered in Oregon before any planned field releases. DNA comparisons showed that these were not the same strain as the research population.
_________________
"You can't build a time machine without weird optics"
Steve Valley - Albany, Oregon
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Send e-mail
MarkSturtevant



Joined: 21 Nov 2015
Posts: 579
Location: Michigan, U.S.A.

PostPosted: Sun Oct 13, 2019 6:16 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Rik, there is some diversity to the form of any class of sensilla. But as I understand it campaniform sensilla are a dome snugly sitting in a pit. I don't know what they look like if the dome is shriveled. But actually, your reply has prompted me to push a little harder at looking at this things, and I came up with the Basiconic sensilla. These might be what these things are. See here for example: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/a-Campaniform-sensilla-CS-trichodea-sensilla-1-TS-1-basiconic-sensilla-1-BS-1-on_fig4_255958103
One would need to see the stink bug sensilla without desiccation to know their true form.
_________________
Mark Sturtevant
Dept. of Still Waters
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message
rjlittlefield
Site Admin


Joined: 01 Aug 2006
Posts: 20085
Location: Richland, Washington State, USA

PostPosted: Sun Oct 13, 2019 8:33 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

MarkSturtevant wrote:
One would need to see the stink bug sensilla without desiccation to know their true form.

For the moment, I think we might assume that the SEM images that I linked earlier show a well preserved state. Those images appear on an instrumentation website. Hot-linking them here for convenience, they look like this:

https://www.quorumtech.com/__assets__/Cats/00190/Stink%20B_No0005.jpg



https://www.quorumtech.com/__assets__/Cats/00190/Stink%20bug%2002.jpg


I sent an information request several days ago to the contact listed for that website, asking for contact info of whoever took the SEM pictures, in hopes that whoever took the picture might know the function. No response yet, though.

As with "campaniform" (Merriam-Webster: "shaped like a bell"), the term "basiconic" (Wiktionary: "having a conical base") superficially seems to refer to just the shape of the structures. But as I scan the literature, the structures to which the terms are applied seem to have more specific functions, campaniform sensilla being strain detectors found in flexible cuticle and basiconic sensilla being chemoreceptors reported on antennae and palps.

Meanwhile, these "balloons in pits" seem most numerous on the dorsal head and thorax, seemingly far from any areas where there would be significant flexing of the cuticle or any particular need for chemical sensing. I can certainly see that the term "basiconic" is a good description of their morphology, but I'm still left wondering what they do.

Looking forward to whatever more information people can provide.

--Rik

Edited to add: newcomers to the forum, please note that this topic continues onto a subsequent page, which can be reached through the "Goto page 1,2, ... Next" links that appear at lower right of each page.


Last edited by rjlittlefield on Mon Nov 11, 2019 12:33 pm; edited 2 times in total
Back to top
View user's profile Send private message Visit poster's website
Display posts from previous:   
Post new topic   Reply to topic    www.photomacrography.net Forum Index -> Technical and Studio Photography -- Macro and Close-up All times are GMT - 7 Hours
Goto page 1, 2  Next
Page 1 of 2

 
Jump to:  
You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot vote in polls in this forum


Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2005 phpBB Group