If I had an A77, which looks like a competent APS 24MP camera. I wouldn't buy another APS camera, at least not for a first try at higher magnification photography.
It's a somewhat complex business; buying the hardware is the easy bit.
If there was a need to change, I think I'd prefer something mirrorless, maybe a Sony A6000/6300.
You already have no flapping mirror (it's fixed, semi-transparent), and you have an electronic first shutter curtain, both of which are ideal. I don't know the camera more than that.
Unless you use a lens on the front of your macro lens, you will lose your auto diaphragm so everything will be surprisingly dark anyway.
That's OK on a fixed setup, as are things like extension tubes. If you get some cheap extension tubes ( <$10 per set) and an adapter ring to M42 (<$5), a whole world becomes open to you. M42 extension tubes are about $4!
Lenses of various types are from $20; (link)
Do you have any other lens to fit your Sony? That may open up further good and cheap options.
If you're set on the Laowa, then I'd get an adapter to your A77 and try it.
Either the glass or the glassless type, may work perfectly well. If not, it wouldn't have cost you much to find out.
Folk use the expensive Canon lens, the MP-E63, on short empty tubes, - I haven't tried but I haven't seen any reports of bad results.
I have an infinity/"glassed" adapter (different make) where I can easily remove the glass.