FAQ: Where do I find ID guides and references for naming?

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FAQ: Where do I find ID guides and references for naming?

Post by rjlittlefield »

I'm sure this is going to grow into quite a long list.

Consider what's here now as just a "starter set".

Please, post replies adding your own favorite resources!

Peter M. Macdonald
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Post by Peter M. Macdonald »


Undernoted is a A somewhat Eurocentric list of identification sites. This could become

quite a long FAQ with rather a lod of editing needed. Good luck....


For Diptera, there are great galleries and identification fora at http://www.diptera.info/news.php. Diptera terminology at http://www.ento.csiro.au/biology/fly/flyGlossary.html. Guide to families at http://www.entomology.umn.edu/museum/li ... cters.html.
Hoverflies (Syrphidae) at http://syrphidae.com/index.php and at http://www.hoverfly.org.uk/portal.php.

Dipterists Forum, with United Kindom lists, etc. at http://www.dipteristsforum.org.uk/.

For Hymenoptera, try http://www.forum.hymis.de.

For Coleoptera.

An index to beetle families is at http://www.zin.ru/ANIMALIA/COLEOPTERA/eng/all_fams.htm.

Online galleries of beetles. Good general European galleries at http://www.koleopterologie.de/gallery/index.html and at http://www.hlasek.com/ccbrouci1an.html, and also at http://www.coleopterist.org.uk. This has a downloadable PDF with a full United Kingdom checklist, with synonyms.

Longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae) at http://www.cerambyx.uochb.cz.
Leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) at http://www.biol.uni.wroc.pl/cassidae/Eu ... /index.htm.
Flea beetles (Alticinae) at http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/Coleoptera ... es/toc.htm.
Cassidinae at http://www.biol.uni.wroc.pl/cassidae/ka ... /index.htm.
All of the Beetles of Poland at http://www.colpolon.biol.uni.wroc.pl/index.htm.
Weevils (Curculionoidea) at http://www.flickr.com/photos/shane58/19 ... 662093816/.
Dermestids at http://www.dermestidae.com/.
Click beetles (Elateridae) at http://www.elateridae.com/?lg=uk&idp=&kat=.

True Bugs (Heteroptera) at http://www.koleopterologie.de/heteroptera/index.html and
http://www.britishbugs.org.uk/index.html and http://www.ukwildlife.bravehost.com/art ... chor188003.

Springtails (Collembola) at http://www.stevehopkin.co.uk/collembolamaps/

For moths, http://ukmoths.org.uk/.

Leaf mines at http://www.leafmines.co.uk/index.htm.

Mosses and liverworts at http://hosting.sleath.co.uk/bbs/.

Spidera at http://www.xs4all.nl/~ednieuw/Spiders/spidhome.htm.

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Post by NikonUser »

Excellent source for photographic identification keys to a few groups (currently 7), more being added but infrequently. Specifically for Canada but applicable to much of Northern NA:

Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification
student of entomology
Quote – Holmes on ‘Entomology’
” I suppose you are an entomologist ? “
” Not quite so ambitious as that, sir. I should like to put my eyes on the individual entitled to that name.
No man can be truly called an entomologist,
sir; the subject is too vast for any single human intelligence to grasp.”
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr
The Poet at the Breakfast Table.

Nikon camera, lenses and objectives
Olympus microscope and objectives

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Post by rjlittlefield »

Lovely -- keep 'em coming! The list may be long and unorganized, but at least it'll all be in one place.


Harold Gough
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Post by Harold Gough »


I have deleted links which are duplicates of those in earlier posts in this FAQ. If I have missed any a PM would be appreciated.

General flora and fauna:




A general (USA) one:


General fauna







Insects (in French)


The images are of outstanding quality:

To look for a particular type of insect:


I first came across this site via its syrphid images.

Australian Insects:


Australian (Brisbane) insects and spiders




Various keys:


Various pest species:


General arthropods:








Various insects:





Another springtail one:


Or, a brief account:

http://www.nhm.ac.uk/resources-rx/files ... t-3056.pdf

Here is help with British wildlife:


http://www.amazon.co.uk/British-wildlif ... _1_rsrrrr0


Insect images (not specified as, but apparently, British):








Bugs Hemiptera:



http://www.ladybird-survey.pwp.blueyond ... shield.htm

Flies (not the best to found, I'm sure):





Fly larvae:


Beetles galore:

http://www.naturalworlds.org/beetlering ... _sites.htm

Jewel beetles:


British Coleoptera:


Butterflies and beetles:


Wisconsin butterflies, tiger beetle, robber fklies:


Butterflies & moths:

British Micro Moths

http://www.opalexplorenature.org/sites/ ... omoths.pdf

UK eggs to adults:







(Scroll down for books)



For N American caterpillars:



http://www.geocities.com/EuropeanButter ... ndexUS.htm

Butterflies & skippers of North America:


Australian moths:


Australian caterpillars:



Various links:


http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?guid ... &flags=HAS:

http://entomology.ifas.ufl.edu/foltz/en ... ysidid.htm

http://www.entomology.umn.edu/museum/li ... cters.html

I'm not sure that this includes other Chalcidoids or Proctotrupoids

Here is a rather more technical but more comprehensive aid:


And one which is less so:

http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/ ... s1_14.html



Chrysidae (cuckoo, jewel or ruby-tailed wasps)









http://www.eakringbirds.com/eakringbird ... swasps.htm

Wasps and other pest insects:


Ants (I'm not sure how useful this will be):





Britain and Europe:


NW Europe:


Other arachnids (basic):





British Plants (many European species):



British Lichens:


http://www.britishlichens.co.uk/picture ... plete.html


http://www.sharnoffphotos.com/lichens/l ... index.html

Lichens General:

http://www.lichenphotoghrapher.com/2012 ... chive.html

On twigs, UK:

http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/life ... index.dsml

Mosses and liverworts:


Mushrooms & Other Fungi




Link to further links:




Lots of links:






Southern England


Mushrooms growing on logs:

http://share3.esd105.wednet.edu/rsandel ... alllog.htm

'Fungi, Slime Moulds, Jellies and 'Crusts' i.e. lichens:

http://www.pbase.com/diggitydogs/fungi_ ... and_crusts

Slime Molds


A key to Myxomycete orders:


And detailed images for genus and species identification:



Identification of garden invertebrates (UK)

See list:

http://www.wildlondon.org.uk/Miniguides ... fault.aspx

British wildlife:

http://www.devonwildlifetrust.org/files ... guides.PDF

http://www.field-studies-council.org/pu ... uides.aspx

Plants (one on fish): Many books by Roger Phillips:


http://www.alibris.com/search/books/aut ... s,%20Roger

My personal library:

http://www.photomacrography.net/forum/v ... 3997#93997

Last edited by Harold Gough on Thu May 16, 2013 11:20 am, edited 56 times in total.
My images are a medium for sharing some of my experiences: they are not me.

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Post by AndrewC »

If you want to know which bit of a fly is what:


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Bee key

Post by AndrewC »

rgds, Andrew

"Is that an accurate dictionary ? Charlie Eppes

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Post by ChrisR »

Charles Krebs
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Post by Charles Krebs »

Protists and microbes. Especially helpful for microscopists interested in fresh water "creatures"...

http://starcentral.mbl.edu/microscope/p ... azorganism


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Post by rjlittlefield »

Another reference for hoverflies (Syphidae): http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/art ... flies.html

(Thanks to sonyalpha!)


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Post by rjlittlefield »

And for "Caterpillars of Eastern Forests" (eastern U.S.), http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/insects/cateast/

Thanks to NikonUser...


Harold Gough
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Post by Harold Gough »

For some time I have been intending to add a complete list of the books I use. These cover mainly British or British and northern European flora and fauna. The list which is given below is a bit chaotic, may contain some errors, and may have omissions, but at least here it may help others. I hope to tidy it up eventually.

The only links here are to further booklists or to further information, such as reviews.


Wildlife Identification Booklist. Most specified are small enough for the pocket.

See list:

http://www.wildlondon.org.uk/Miniguides ... fault.aspx

British wildlife:

"What is that? The complete guide to Britain's wildlife, plants and flowers" by Paul Sterry. ISBN 978 0 276 44342 8 Readers Digest

"Wildlife of Britain. the definitive visual guide" DK/RSPB ISBN 978 1 4053 3484 6

These two are heavyweights, not for the pocket, talking of which, they are quite expensive too, about £20 each.

Largish pocket books:

"The complete guide to British Wildlife" by N Arlott, R Fitter and A Fitter Collins ISBN 0 00 219212 8

"Field Guide to the Wildlife or Britain & Europe" Ed Michael Chinery, Kingfisher (I have a Book Club edition with no ISBN but I believe it should be 0 -86272-210-1).

http://www.field-studies-council.org/pu ... idgap.aspx

and these, of which I have many on my desk:

http://www.field-studies-council.org/pu ... ldout.aspx

http://www.field-studies-council.org/pu ... uides.aspx

http://www.devonwildlifetrust.org/files ... guides.PDF

Plants (one on fish): Many (mostly A4 size) books by Roger Phillips:


http://www.alibris.com/search/books/aut ... s,%20Roger


The Hamlyn Guide to the Seashore and Shallow Seas of Britain and Europe by A C Campbell ISBN 0-600-34396-0

The Hamlyn Guide to the Flora and Fauna of the Mediterranean Sea by A C Campbell ISBN 0-600-35279-X

The Photographic Guide to Identify Seashells and Seaweeds by Roger Phillips, Elm Tree books ISBN 0-241-12028-4


For general insects, UK & Europe, I use mostly two books:

Collins "Complete British Wildlife Photoguide" by Paul Sterry. ISBN 0-00-220071-6 (Entirely photographs; captions only, no other text)

"A Field Guide to the Insects of Britain and Northern Europe" by Michael Chinery, Collins. ISBN 0-00-219216-0 (Coloured drawings, keys and text).

The most recent, and one of the most comprehensive:

A Photographic Guide to Insects of the New Forest and surrounding ara by Paul D Brock, Pisces Publications ISBN 978-1-874357-44-9

For a few pennies, I bought a used copy of this from Amazon UK:

Readers Digest Nature Lovers library "Field Guide to the Butterflies and other insects of Britain" ISBN 0 276 36007 9 Principal author Dr John Feltwell


(All books include damselflies).

Field Guide to Dragonflies of Britain and Europe by Klaas-Douwe B Dijkstra and (illustrated by) Richard Lewington, 2006, reprinted 2010, British Wildlife Publishing ISBN 9780953139941

It includes a section on the species to be found in each country. Most valuable is the comprehensive illustration, covering species, varieties and details not normally given in guidebooks. It is a (large) pocket size. This is probably the book to have if you can only have one on European dragonflies.

Coverage extends to Western Turkey, Cyprus, Algeria, Tunisia, The Azores, The Canaries and Madeira.

A field Guide to Dragonflies of Britain, Europe and North Africa by J d'Aguilar, J-L Dommanget and R Préchac. Collins ISBN 0-00-219436-8

The Dragonflies of Europe (revised edition) by R R Askew, Harley books ISBN 0-946589-75-5.
NHS/FSC Guide to dragonflies and damselflies of Britain ISBN 978-1-85153-863-8

Country Life Guides Dragonflies and Damselflies of Britain and Northern Europe by Bob Gibbons ISBN 0-600-33378-7


Land & Water Bugs of the British Isles by T R E Southwood & Dennis Leston, Pisces Conservation Ltd E-Book CD

Shieldbugs of Surrey by Roger D Hawkins Surrey Wildlife Trust ISBN 0-9526065-7-7


Hoverflies of Surrey by Roger K A Morris, Surrey Wildlife Trust ISBN 0-9526065-3-4

British Hoverflies. An illustrated identification guide, by Alan E Stubbs and Steven J Falk. British Entomological and Natural History Society 1983. Text and keys by Alan Stubbs, coloured plates* (190 species) by Steven J Falk. Softback ISBN 0 9502891 4 0, hardback 0 9502891 3 2

* Coloured drawings, so much better than photographs.

The format is about twice the page size of typical pocket guides.

Colour Guide to Hoverfly Larvae (Diptera, Syrphidae) by Graham E Rotheray. Dipterists Digest No. 9 ISSN 0853 7260

Flies of the British Isles by Colyer & Hammond. Wayne, Wayside and Woodland Series, 2nd edition 1968. ISBN-10 0723200041 ISBN-13 9780723200048 (Out of print since 2003). "The only modern English work providing a comprehensive survey of all families of British flies..." The illustrations include 25 colour plates of the quality for which the series is renowned.


Shire Natural History. Ants of the British Isles by G J Skinner ISBN 0-85263-896-5

Field Guide to the Bumblebees of Great Britain & Ireland by Mike Edwards & Martin Jenner. Countryside & Garden Conservation Series, Ocelli ISBN 0-9549713-0-2

Naturalist’s Handbooks 6. Bumblebees by Oliver E Prys-Jones & Sarah A Corbet, Cambridge ISBN 0-521-25975-4


New Generation Guide to the Butterflies and Day-Flying Moths of Britain and Europe by Michael Chinery (General Editor Sir David Attenborough). University of Texas Press, 1989. ISBN 0-292-75539-2. (Pocket size).

Many guides have enough detail to permit identification of the species most likely to be seen and perhaps also some very distinctive rarities. There is one book which will permit identification of every butterfly (360 species) and every day-flying moth (260 species) to be seen in Britain or mainland Europe. (A few recent discoveries are omitted).

Both sexes are shown and undersides where needed. Similar species are shown on the same page. There is a sprinkling of eggs, larvae and pupae. These are illustrated by a total of 1,500 colour paintings.

Guide to the Moths of the British Isles By Bernard Skinner,iIllustrated by David Wilson, Viking 1984 (1988 reprint) ISBN 0-670-80354-5.

Colour plates of 1,600 specimens and 57 groups of drawings as figures in the text. The plates show all species, races and "better known forms". The nomencclature is up to date. (Butterflies and Microlepidoptera are not included).

The 2009 edition, ISBN 978-8788757-90-3, has 51 colour plates:


British Moths and Butterflies A Photographic Guide by Chris Manley, A & C Black London ISBN 978-0-7136-8636-4 (About twice the size of pocket format).

A Kingfisher Guide. Butterflies of Britain and Europe by Alan Watson ISBN 0-86272-060-5

Collins "A Field Guide to Caterpillars of Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe" by D.J. Carter and B. Hargreaves ISBN 0-00-219080-X.
This book takes a unique approach: Its colour plates group caterpillars according to their food plants and also shows what the adult insects look like. (Other books show the adults in colour, maybe also with line drawings of caterpillars, or just show the caterpillars in colour).
Only 500 species are included of the 850 in Porter's comprehensive book
So, once you have some idea what species it is, if it is not one of those of very striking appearance, you may have to consult books with more species described or illustrated.

The Colour Identification Guide to Caterpillars of the British Isles by Jim Porter, Viking ISBN 0-670-87509-0


These books may be useful in other European faunas. Anyway, they are a joy to own:

Beetles of the British Isles, Series 1 The Superfamilies Caraboidea, Palpicornia, Staphylinoidea and Diversicornia 19 plates in colour, 20 in black and white. 300 pages, Frederick Warne & Co., Wayside and Woodland series, 1959.

Beetles of the British Isles, Series 2 The Superfamilies Clavicornia, Heteromera, Lamellicornia, Phytophaga & Rhycophora and including the Strepsiptera. 44 plates in colour, 43 in black and white. 300 pages, Frederick Warne & Co., Wayside and Woodland series, 1959.

Shire Natural History. Longhorn Beetles of the British Isles by Norman Hickin ISBN 0-85263-897-3

Blandford Colour Series. Beetles in Colour by Keif Lyneborg ISBN 0-7137-0827-1


Collins Field Guide Spiders of Britain & Northern Europe by Michael J Roberts ISBN 0-00-219985-5

The Country life guide to Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe by Dick Jones ISBN 0-600-35665-5


Roger Phillips: Grasses, Ferns, Mosses and Lichens of Great Britain and Ireland, Pan Books ISBN 0 330 25959 8 (Many are A4 size).

Collins Guide to the Grasses, Sedges, Rushes and Ferns of Britain and Northern Europe by Roger Fitter & Alastair Fitter

“Field Guide to Wild flowers of Southern Europe” by Paul Davies and Bob Gibbons, The Crowood Press 1993 ISBN 1 85223 659 0 Includes trees, grasses and sedges and covers “many of the plants (all orchids) of Spain, Portugal, southern France, Italy and Malta

"The Wild Flowers of Britain and Northern Europe" by Richard Fitter, Alastair Fitter and Marjorie Blamey, 1974 ISBN Paperback edition 0 00219069 09

"A Field Guide to the Wild Flowers of Britain and Europe" by Thomas Schauer, over 1600 species described, 1200 illustrated in colour. (Some Mediterranean species included). ISBN Paperback edition 0 00 219257 8

Field Guide to Orchids of Britain and Europe by Karl Peter Buttler and Consultant editor Paul Davies, The Crowood Press 1986, 2007 edition. ISBN 978-1-85223-591-8.

Every European species and subspecies is described and illustrated with whole plant and close-up colour photographs and line drawings of floral details. There are keys to species and descriptions and habitat details. Each page has a colour code for the genus.

The book is a pocket-size paperback.

The Illustrated Book of Trees and Shrubs edited by Eleanor Lawrence from a text by Vaclav Vetvicka. Octopus Books 1985, reprinted 1986. ISBN 0 7064 2044 6

Evergreen Trees and Shrubs by James Underwood Crockett and the Editors of Time-Life Books (one volume of the series The Time-Life Encyclopaedia of Gardening).1978. (No ISBN No). (There would also be a deciduous tree volume in the series).

Trees in Britain, Europe and North America by Roger Phillips. PAN Books 1978 ISBN 0 330 25480 4 (Now online)

The Country Living Book "Special Plants" by Jane Taylor, Quadrille Publishing ISBN 1-902757-46-7 (Cultivated plants)


Collins Complete Guide to British Mushrooms & Toadstools. A photographic guide to every common species by Paul Sterry & Barry Hughes ISBN 978-0-00-723224-6

Mini review here:

http://www.photomacrography.net/forum/v ... 7103#97103

Authors of the above book recommend:

Collins field Guide. Mushrooms & Toadstools of Britain and Europe by Courtecuisse, Regis & Duhem, Bernard. HarperCollins, 1995 ISBN: 0002200252
It covers 3,500 species, every one which can be identified in the field. The geographical coverage includes the whole of Europe, the outer limits including western Russia and western Turkey, and the northern parts od Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. The illustrations are coloured drawings.
It is the only book in my library which has ha detailed section on the "syndromes" of mushroom poisoning. It also has a very extensive macroscopic key to species. A good pocket guide.

The Great Encyclopedia of Mushrooms by Lamaison and Polese (no authors' names appear in or on my copy!) ISBN 3-8290-1728-6. Quarto ( I think) - slightly shorter and wider than A4.

Introduction to Fungi by John Webster 978-0521807395 (A4 size, the second edition somewhat smaller).

Mushrooms by Roger Phillips 978-0330442374 (now online)

This shows detached fruiting bodies photographed on a coloured background to best show off the mushrooms.

The Encyclopedia of Fungi of Britain and Europe by Michael Jordan. Published by David & Charles ISBN0 7153 0129 2. Mushrooms, often groups of them, are shown growing in their habitat, sometimes with detached fruiting bodies also in the frame to show additonal features. Photographs of 1,000 species are included. There are 3 pages on Slime Moulds and, a unique feature, a colour chart for the colours of mushrooms. The book predates the issue of commons names for most species. (This book is expensive but I obtained a very clean copy at a fraction of the price). Quarto ( I think) - slightly shorter and wider than A4.

Penguin Nature Guides. Fungi of Northern Europe1. Larger Fungi (Excluding Gill-Fungi) by Sven Nilsson & Olle Persson ISBN 0 14 063.005 8

Penguin Nature Guides. Fungi of Northern Europe 2. Gill Fungi by Sven Nilsson & Olle Persson ISBN 0 14 063.006 6

Kingfisher Guide to the Mushrooms & Toadstools of Britain and Europe by David Pegler ISBN 1-85697-156-2

Collins Guide Mushrooms and Toadstools of Britain and Europe by Stefan Buzacki ISBN 0-00-219978
It covers from mushrooms to fungal diseases of plants, 1,300 species altogether. Illustrations are coloured drawings with detailed descriptions. It has sections on substrates, environments and habitats. A good pocket guide.

Slime Molds

Myxomycetes A Handbook of Slime Molds by Steven L Stephenson and Henry Stempen Timber Press ISBN 0-88192-493-3

Mediterreanean Wildlife

Collins Complete Guide To Mediterreanean Wildlife. A photographic guide to every common species by Paul Sterry, 384 pages ISBN 978-0-00-220161-2.

It covers animals and plants of southern Spain and southern Portugal, Itally, Greece, the islands and parts of most other countries (not Egypt)surrounding the sea.

1,000 photographs illustrate flora and fauna of coastal regions and mountain foothills.
Last edited by Harold Gough on Wed Sep 19, 2012 3:37 am, edited 33 times in total.
My images are a medium for sharing some of my experiences: they are not me.

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Post by ChrisRaper »

My own personal favourite for UK and European insects is the "Field Guide to the Insects of Britain and Western Europe" by Michael Chinery - not to be confused with the book that covers Northern Europe!! The Western Europe one has far more species figured whereas the Northern Europe book is mainly text but it very good if you want to learn about the insects and entomology in general.

This used to be a Collins guide but now it seems to have migrated to Domino - see http://www.amazon.co.uk/Insects-Britain ... 0713672390 (I have no links to Amazon or the authors - just posting for the benefit of readers - other online bookshops are available!).

I also feel compelled to reiterate that these guides are designed as fun books for learning about insects ... they are not comprehensive and in groups like the flies & wasps you absolutely cannot trust them for identifications - they will only be approximate at best and some of the figures are very misleading!

Harold Gough
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Post by Harold Gough »

I have added a bug reference and two more seashore ones. I have also arranged the books into a more conventional order.

My images are a medium for sharing some of my experiences: they are not me.

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Post by ChrisR »

All the macro moths in the UK:
A Field Guide to the Moths of Great Britian and Ireland. Waring, Townsend and Lewington. 444pp ISBN 9780953139989 £29.95

A wonderful big book.
The Royal Entomological Society Book of British Insects. Peter C. Barnard ISBN 9781444332568 90000
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2011. 343pp Hardback. 283 x 225 mm ~£40

Forensic entomology has a number of fascinating titles at quite high prices.
A cheaper start, both factual and interesting (See ebay)
Maggots Murder and Men. Dr Zakaria Erzinclioglu 0312287740
Also seek out his Blowfly guide in the Naturalists Handbook series.

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